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  • 摘要:

    This video takes a relaxed look at a tense process — cleaning and recoating the surface of one of the ESO Very Large Telescope’s 8.2-metre main mirrors.

    Every night the huge mirrors are exposed to the atmosphere whilst uncovered during observing sessions. They gradually accumulate dust and other pollutants that reduce their reflectivity, making them less effective at capturing faint light from the cosmos. So they are regularly removed from the telescope, taken down the mountain to the recoating facility, cleaned and finally recoated with a thin and highly reflective new aluminium layer.

    You can subscribe to the ESOcasts on iTunes, receive future episodes on YouTube or follow us on Vimeo.

    来源机构: 欧洲南方天文台 | 点击量:23
  • 摘要:

    Light is the lifeblood of astronomy and by collecting it using telescopes and instruments astronomers can study almost everything in space. Atmospheric turbulence, however, distorts the light arriving at telescopes on Earth. At ESO’s Very Large Telescope, researchers are meeting this challenge with the revolutionary new Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) helping the MUSE instrument to break new records.

    ESOcast 119 explores why adaptive optics is necessary for research at ESO, how the new AOF will improve the capabilities of ESO’s MUSE instrument, and the future of adaptive optics on instruments at ESO’s Very Large Telescope.

    You can subscribe to the ESOcasts on iTunes, receive future episodes on YouTube or follow us on Vimeo.

    来源机构: 欧洲南方天文台 | 点击量:31
  • 摘要:

    The latest edition of ESO's quarterly journal, The Messenger, is now available online. Find out the latest news from ESO on topics ranging from new instruments to the latest science discoveries.

    Highlights of this edition include:

    1:A Long Expected Party — The First Stone Ceremony for the Extremely Large Telescope:

    2:The Adaptive Optics Facility: Commissioning Progress and Results

    3:The Cherenkov Telescope Array: Exploring the Very-high-energy Sky from ESO’s Paranal Site

    4:Towards a Sharper Picture of R136 with SPHERE Extreme Adaptive Optics

    5:The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS): Science Highlights and Final Data Release

    详细内容见:http://www.eso.org/public/announcements/ann17046/

    来源机构: 欧洲南方天文台 | 点击量:14
  • 摘要:

    This morning, on Aug. 2, 2017, the 4m primary mirror system for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) arrived safely on Haleakalā despite attempts by protesters to block the transports from reaching the summit. We are again very grateful to law enforcement authorities for ensuring safety during the transport.

    The 4m mirror is a key optical component for the DKIST. We are pleased to be able to continue work on this important telescope. Once completed DKIST will allow us to glean new insights into solar phenomena and to discover new information about how our nearest star works. This knowledge will serve as a basis for protecting vital space-based assets, the power grid, and communication and weather satellites that we as a human society rely on in our daily lives.

    DKIST began with a ground survey over a decade ago. The project made concerted efforts to identify and mitigate cultural and environmental impacts associated with the construction of what will be the world’s most powerful solar telescope. Throughout the DKIST planning process and initial construction, DKIST consulted local officials, Native Hawaiians, and other stakeholders to ensure the project respected views and adjusted plans accordingly. The project continues construction in full compliance with all legal requirements. Work will progress mostly inside the completed telescope building for an on-schedule completion of the project by early 2020.

    Like those who protest our facility, we too respect and value our planet, the broader universe, and our shared origins. The nonprofit fundamental research that will be performed with DKIST will benefit global human society. It is our hope that we can work together while respectful of one another’s differences, and mutually revere these gifts from nature.

    来源机构: 美国4米太阳望远镜(ATST) | 点击量:27
  • 摘要:

    This morning, on Aug. 2, 2017, the 4m primary mirror system for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) arrived safely on Haleakalā despite attempts by protesters to block the transports from reaching the summit. We are again very grateful to law enforcement authorities for ensuring safety during the transport.

    The 4m mirror is a key optical component for the DKIST. We are pleased to be able to continue work on this important telescope. Once completed DKIST will allow us to glean new insights into solar phenomena and to discover new information about how our nearest star works. This knowledge will serve as a basis for protecting vital space-based assets, the power grid, and communication and weather satellites that we as a human society rely on in our daily lives.

    DKIST began with a ground survey over a decade ago. The project made concerted efforts to identify and mitigate cultural and environmental impacts associated with the construction of what will be the world’s most powerful solar telescope. Throughout the DKIST planning process and initial construction, DKIST consulted local officials, Native Hawaiians, and other stakeholders to ensure the project respected views and adjusted plans accordingly. The project continues construction in full compliance with all legal requirements. Work will progress mostly inside the completed telescope building for an on-schedule completion of the project by early 2020.

    Like those who protest our facility, we too respect and value our planet, the broader universe, and our shared origins. The nonprofit fundamental research that will be performed with DKIST will benefit global human society. It is our hope that we can work together while respectful of one another’s differences, and mutually revere these gifts from nature.

    来源机构: 美国4米太阳望远镜(ATST) | 点击量:2
  • 摘要:

    This morning, on Aug. 2, 2017, the 4m primary mirror system for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) arrived safely on Haleakalā despite attempts by protesters to block the transports from reaching the summit. We are again very grateful to law enforcement authorities for ensuring safety during the transport.

    The 4m mirror is a key optical component for the DKIST. We are pleased to be able to continue work on this important telescope. Once completed DKIST will allow us to glean new insights into solar phenomena and to discover new information about how our nearest star works. This knowledge will serve as a basis for protecting vital space-based assets, the power grid, and communication and weather satellites that we as a human society rely on in our daily lives.

    DKIST began with a ground survey over a decade ago. The project made concerted efforts to identify and mitigate cultural and environmental impacts associated with the construction of what will be the world’s most powerful solar telescope. Throughout the DKIST planning process and initial construction, DKIST consulted local officials, Native Hawaiians, and other stakeholders to ensure the project respected views and adjusted plans accordingly. The project continues construction in full compliance with all legal requirements. Work will progress mostly inside the completed telescope building for an on-schedule completion of the project by early 2020.

    Like those who protest our facility, we too respect and value our planet, the broader universe, and our shared origins. The nonprofit fundamental research that will be performed with DKIST will benefit global human society. It is our hope that we can work together while respectful of one another’s differences, and mutually revere these gifts from nature.

    来源机构: 美国4米太阳望远镜(ATST) | 点击量:1
  • 摘要:

    The fifth edition of the Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescope meeting (AO4ELT) was recently held in Puerto de la Cruz, in the Canary island of Tenerife, Spain. The conference gathered specialists from all around the world to discuss the latest developments made in Adaptive Optics for the current and next-generation of ground-based telescopes.

    More than 20 scientists working for, or contributing to, the TMT projects traveled to Puerto Cruz to attend this week-long conference organized by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC).

    Gary Sanders, the TMT Project Manager, opened the conference with a tribute in memory of Jerry Nelson, a pioneer in developing the segmented primary mirror concept used for today’s telescopes of the 10m class, and that will be a key-component of the TMT. Nelson also invented the innovative techniques of stressed mirror polishing. He will be sorely missed by the TMT and adaptive optics communities.

    Corinne Boyer, TMT Adaptive Optics Group Leader, was the first keynote speaker. She provided an overview of the progress made in the design and development of key components for TMT’s AO systems at the TMT project office and throughout its partner institutions: the National Research Council, Herzberg, in Victoria Canada and the Institute of Optics and Electronics in Chengdu (China).

    TMT’s AO facility consists of the Narrow Field InfraRed AO System (NFIRAOS), its associated Laser Guide Star Facility (LGSF) and the AO Executive Software (AOESW).

    NFIRAOS is a multi-conjugate AO (MCAO) Laser Guide Star (LGS) system, capable of feeding a corrected wavefront to three instruments. The AO system will have two deformable mirrors conjugated at the altitudes of the ground and 11.8km, with the DM conjugated to the ground mounted on a tip/tilt stage to reduce the number of optical surfaces. The system will also have six high order laser guide star wavefront sensors and one high order natural guide star (NGS) wavefront sensor for truth wavefront sensor or operation without laser. To provide an optimal correction of atmospheric turbulences, windshake, optical errors and plate scale distortion, NFIRAOS will also use up to three additional low-order (tip/tilt and/or focus) IR wavefront sensors within the science instruments (OIWFS), and up to four guide windows on the science detectors.

    TMT is working with two DM vendors to design and prototype the NFIRAOS DMs and with the Lincoln Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Astronomical Research Cameras, Inc. (ARC) to develop detectors and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor visible cameras optimized for LGS and high order NGS systems. NFIRAOS will use seven of these cameras in its multi-conjugate AO system.

    The LGSF will generate the artificial laser guide stars required by NFIRAOS and will be capable of projecting different asterism geometries, depending on the needs of the science programs. Up to nine sodium lasers (six at first-light) will be located on a platform behind the TMT’s elevation journal, below the primary mirror. The beams will then be transported to a location behind the TMT’s secondary mirror, where the asterisms will be generated prior to their projection on-sky through a laser launch telescope.

    The AOESW includes several sub-systems dedicated to efficiently and safely coordinating and synchronizing the operations of the AO systems and wavefront sensing sub-systems of NFIRAOS, initializing and optimizing the parameters of the NFIRAOS Real Time Controller and estimating the AO-corrected Point Spread Function (PSF) for the science observations. TMT scientists also reported on the comprehensive and detailed AO modeling needed to support the design and development of the first-light TMT AO facility, as well as on recent studies carried out to investigate the performance improvement obtained with an Adaptive Secondary Mirror. Additional reports on AO systems budgets and requirements were provided at the conference by members of the TMT systems engineering team.

    Conference participants enjoyed special tours throughout the week, including a visit of the Observatorio del Teide, based in Tenerife. Teide Obs. was the first professional observatory installed on the island. It began operations in 1964 and is the location of the world’s second largest solar telescope.

    Another tour was held at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (ORM) on La Palma, the most northwesterly island of the Canary Islands. The observatory site is part of the European Northern Observatory and is operated by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. The site offers the most extensive astronomical facilities located in the Northern Hemisphere. Among several others, its fleet of telescopes includes the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias, the world's largest single-aperture optical telescope, the William Herschel Telescope (second largest in Europe), and the adaptive optics corrected Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope, which provides the highest resolution solar imaging.

    In March 2017, TMT International Observatory (TIO) and IAC signed a hosting agreement. While Maunakea in Hawaii continues to be the preferred choice for the location of the TMT, the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos has become TMT’s alternative site. ORM benefits from excellent conditions for adaptive optics observations and will enable breakthrough transformative science should the Thirty Meter Telescope need to move there.

    来源机构: 美国三十米望远镜(TMT) | 点击量:75
  • 摘要:

    In August 2015, ESO and the European Space Agency (ESA) signed a cooperation agreement setting the terms and conditions for mutual cooperation and the exchange of scientific research information between the two organisations. The first project to be implemented under this cooperation agreement is the deployment of a Test-Bed Telescope at ESO’s La Silla Observatory in northern Chile.

    Operating alongside a similar project in the northern hemisphere, the 56-cm Test-Bed Telescope (TBT) will act as a precursor to a full autonomous optical sensor network which will detect and track an extensive list of near-Earth objects, such as asteroids. The TBT will demonstrate the instrument’s hardware and software capabilities, such as automatic scheduling, remote real-time control, and autonomous data processing.

    来源机构: 欧洲南方天文台 | 点击量:43
  • 摘要:

    NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope was placed in Johnson Space Center’s historic Chamber A on June 20, 2017, to prepare for its final three months of testing in a cryogenic vacuum that mimics temperatures in space.

    Engineers will perform the test to prove that the telescope can operate in space at these temperatures. Chamber A will simulate an environment where the telescope will experience extreme cold -- around 37 Kelvin (minus 236 degrees Celsius or minus 393 degrees Fahrenheit).

    In space, the telescope must be kept extremely cold, in order to be able to detect the infrared light from very faint, distant objects. To protect the telescope from external sources of light and heat (like the sun, Earth, and moon), as well as from heat emitted by the observatory, a five-layer, tennis court-sized sunshield acts like a parasol that provides shade. The sunshield separates the observatory into a warm, sun-facing side (reaching temperatures close to 185 degrees Fahrenheit) and a cold side (400 degrees below zero). The sunshield blocks sunlight from interfering with the sensitive telescope instruments.

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. It will be the most powerful space telescope ever built. Webb is an international project led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.

    来源机构: 詹姆斯·韦伯空间望远镜(JWST) | 点击量:134
  • 摘要:

    SKA Global Headquarters, UK, Thursday 25 May 2017 – It is with great sadness that the SKA Organisation acknowledges the passing of Prof. Giovanni Fabrizio Bignami, Chairman of the SKA Board of Directors in Madrid last night, Wednesday 24 May 2017, at the age of 73.

    Prof. Bignami was appointed Chairman of the SKA Board in July 2015. During his time as Chairman he was instrumental in leading the Board through several major engineering and governance milestones in development of the SKA project. He was also centrally involved in the efforts to establish the SKA as an Intergovernmental Organisation, and a strong ambassador to the project relentlessly advocating for the SKA on the global scene.

    Prof. Bignami graduated in Physics in 1968 at the University of Milan. During his career, he actively participated in the design and construction of numerous scientific satellites and was appointed a Principal Investigator in the European Space Agency’s (ESA) hugely successful XMM-Newton Mission from 1988 to 1997.

    From 1997 to 2002 he was the Scientific Director of the Italian Space Agency (ASI), where he started, among other things, the small missions program of the ASI. From 2003 to 2006, he was Director of the Centre d’Étude Spatiale des Rayonnements in Toulouse, one of the most important space research centres in Europe. In recognition of his work, Prof. Bignami received the Officier de l’Ordre National du Mérite distinction and the Officier de la Légion d’Honneur, the most prestigious order in France.

    From January 2004 to January 2007, he was President of the Space Science Advisory Committee (SSAC) of ESA, responsible for the agency’s scientific programme planning document, ‘Cosmic Vision 2015-2025’. On March 16, 2007, the Italian Council of Ministers appointed him as Chairman of ASI, a post he held until August 2008. After a period as President of COSPAR (the UN’s World Space Research Committee), Prof. Bignami returned to Italy as President of the National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) until his retirement from office in late 2015.

    Throughout his career, in addition to his prodigious academic output, Prof. Bignami was a committed and extremely high profile ambassador for science and astronomy in particular, having written numerous popular science books and given many interviews and public talks.

    The Board of Directors of the SKA and the entire staff of the SKA Organisation would like to express their deepest condolences to his family and friends. His commitment, enthusiasm and energy devoted to our project will be hugely missed.

    来源机构: 平方公里阵(SKA) | 点击量:122