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  • 摘要:

    Following a successful second IRIS Preliminary Design Phase Review (PDR-2) at the TMT Project Office in Pasadena, IRIS is proceeding into its Final Design phase. The focus of the second review, held in September, involved an assessment of the IRIS software (including its data reduction system) and electrical design (including its detectors) as well as programmatic aspects spanning project cost and overall schedule.

    IRIS is a first light instrument designed to operate in the near-infrared (0.84-2.4 μm). It will enable the broad study of astronomical objects by providing data sets that are exquisite in their detail. It will achieve an angular resolution 10 times better than images from the Hubble Space Telescope. As one of the highest angular resolution near-infrared instruments in the world, it will help usher in a new era of astronomical study. The features of the design will enable a vast range of science goals covering numerous astrophysical domains including: solar system science, extrasolar planet studies, star formation processes, the physics super-massive black-holes and the composition and formation of galaxies, from our local neighborhood to high-redshift galaxies.

    Review participants included members of the IRIS team, external subject matter experts and key stakeholders. The review panel was chaired by Richard “Ric” Davies, senior scientist at Max-Planck Institute and the principal investigator of the Multi-AO Imaging Camera for Deep Observations (MICADO), one first light instrument for the E-ELT.

    In its initial feedback, the review board congratulated and acknowledged the IRIS team on the quality of the presentations and documentation delivered, recognizing the excellent work undertaken by the instrument team to complete the preliminary design phase.

    The review featured a thorough assessment of the readiness of the IRIS software design as well as the system’s electrical plan and a revisiting of its operational concepts. Additionally, the team presented its first quality assurance and safety plans. Lastly, PDR-2 also saw the team generate a cost proposal as well as produce its final design phase schedule.

    During the latter part of the preliminary design phase, the IRIS science team greatly expanded upon the instrument’s operational concepts, specifically addressing the steps and system interactions involved in preparing for and performing end-to-end observations. To this end, a thorough subset of the envisioned IRIS science cases walked through the anticipated software sequences.

    When delivered, IRIS will operate from 0.84 µm to 2.4 µm and offer diffraction-limited imaging and integral-field spectroscopy at wavelengths greater than 1 µm. The design will feature an Imager with a field-of-view of 34”x34” arcsec which relays light into the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS).

    The IFS hosts two slicing techniques to sample the delivered field, each of these provides two plate scale options for a total of four modes. Of these, the lenslet channel will handle the finest plate scales; whereas, the slicer channel will provide coverage for the coarser ones. The IFS will support moderate spectral resolutions of R = 4,000.

    IRIS is being designed to take true advantage of all the gains afforded by a 30m class telescope. In its highest spatial sampling, the IFS will yield upwards of 14,000 individual simultaneous spectra. As one of TMT’s first-light instruments, IRIS needs to be versatile, and to this end, the observing modes are enriched by the instrument’s complement of 60 filters and 14 gratings.

    The IRIS collaborating institutions include The California Institute of Technology (CIT); The Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology (NIAOT); The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ); The National Research Council (NRC) of Canada Herzberg Astronomy & Astrophysics; The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA); The University of California at San Diego (UCSD) and The University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC).

    来源机构: 美国三十米望远镜(TMT) | 点击量:42
  • 摘要:

    The Giant Magellan Telescope Organization (GMTO) today announced that it has initiated the casting of the fifth of seven mirrors that will form the heart of the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). The mirror is being cast at the University of Arizona’s Richard F. Caris Mirror Laboratory, the facility known for creating the world’s largest mirrors for astronomy. The 25-meter diameter GMT will be sited in the Chilean Andes and will be used to study planets around other stars and to look back to the time when the first galaxies formed. The process of “casting” the giant mirror involves melting nearly 20 tons of glass in a spinning furnace. Once cooled, the glass disk will be polished to its final shape using state-of-the-art technology developed by the University of Arizona.

    The GMT will combine the light from seven of these 8.4 meter mirrors to create a telescope with an effective aperture 24.5 meters in diameter (80 feet). With its unique design, the GMT will produce images that are 10 times sharper than those from the Hubble Space telescope in the infrared region of the spectrum.

    “We are thrilled to be casting the Giant Magellan Telescope’s fifth mirror,” said Dr. Robert N. Shelton, President of GMTO. “The Giant Magellan Telescope project will enable breakthrough discoveries in astronomy, and perhaps entirely new fields of study. With the talents of the team at the University of Arizona and across our entire community, we are taking the next step towards completing the seven-mirror GMT.”

    Each of GMT’s light-weighted mirrors is a marvel of engineering. The mirrors begin as pristine blocks of custom manufactured low-expansion E6 glass from the Ohara Corporation of Japan. Precisely 17,481 kg of these glass blocks have been placed by hand into a custom-built furnace pre-loaded with a hexagonal mold. At the peak of the lengthy casting process, in which the giant furnace spins at up to five revolutions per minute, the glass is heated to 1165°C (2129°F) for about four hours until it liquefies and flows into the mold. The casting process continues as the glass is carefully cooled for three months while the furnace spins at a slower rate. The glass then undergoes an extended period of shaping and polishing. The result of this high-precision process is a mirror that is polished to an accuracy of one twentieth of a wavelength of light, or less than one thousandth of the width of a human hair.

    “Casting the mirrors for the Giant Magellan Telescope is a huge undertaking, and we are very proud of the UA’s leading role creating this new resource for scientific discovery. The GMT partnership and Caris Mirror Lab are outstanding examples of how we can tackle complex challenges with innovative solutions,” said UA President Robert C. Robbins. “The University of Arizona has such an amazing tradition of excellence in space exploration, and I have been constantly impressed by the things our faculty, staff, and students in astronomy and space sciences can accomplish.”

    With its casting this weekend, the fifth GMT mirror joins three additional GMT mirrors at various stages of production in the Mirror Lab. Polishing of mirror 2’s front surface is well underway; coarse grinding will begin on the front of the third mirror shortly and mirror number 4, the central mirror, will soon be ready for coarse grinding following mirror 3. The first GMT mirror was completed several years ago and was moved to a storage location in Tucson this September, awaiting the next stage of its journey to Chile. The glass for mirror 6 has been delivered to Tucson and mirror seven’s glass is on order from the Ohara factory in Japan.

    In time, the giant mirrors will be transported to GMT’s future home in the Chilean Andes at the Carnegie Institution for Science’s Las Campanas Observatory. This site is known for being one of the best astronomical sites on the planet with its clear, dark skies and stable airflow producing exceptionally sharp images. GMTO has broken ground in Chile and has developed the infrastructure on the site needed to support construction activities.

    “Creating the largest telescope in history is a monumental endeavor, and the GMT will be among the largest privately-funded scientific initiatives to date,” said Taft Armandroff, Professor of Astronomy and Director of the McDonald Observatory at The University of Texas at Austin, and Vice-Chair of the GMTO Corporation Board of Directors. “With this next milestone, and with the leadership, technical, financial and scientific prowess of the members of the GMTO partnership, we continue on the path to the completion of this great observatory.”

    来源机构: 美国25米望远镜(GMT) | 点击量:55
  • 摘要:

    Marking a major production milestone, TMT has entered into a contract with Coherent Inc., one of the world’s leading providers of lasers and laser-based technology for scientific, commercial and industrial customers, to polish its U.S. manufactured primary mirrors (M1) segments. TMT, with its thirty-meter diameter primary mirror, and a collecting area greater than all other optical telescopes on Maunakea combined, is the largest optical/near-infrared telescope planned for the northern hemisphere.

    Under the terms of the contract, Coherent will precisely contour and polish the optical surfaces of 230 mirror segments to the accuracy of less than 1/50th of the width of a human hair. The remaining segments, including spare segments, are being provided by TMT’s international partners Japan, China and India.

    Coherent will use a unique “Stressed Mirror Polishing” (SMP) technique, a process refined jointly with TMT, for the production of the polished mirror segments. The Stressed Mirror Polishing uses specially designed fixtures that apply precise forces to the mirrors during their fabrication. The Ohara ClearCeram™ blank is warped into an aspheric shape, then accurately polished into a smooth spherical surface using a conventional polishing technique. The forces are released after polishing, and the mirror relaxes into the desired aspheric shape.

    SMP methodology was originally developed for the construction of the Keck telescope primary mirror, led by the late TMT Project Scientist, Jerry Nelson. This process both reduces the cost of polishing and improves the smoothness of the resulting optical surfaces. Nelson’s revolutionary concept of segmented mirrors replacing a single large collecting aperture has been used worldwide for several large telescopes that cannot be created using a single optical element, including the James Webb Space Telescope.

    About TMT:

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project has been developed as collaboration among Caltech, the University of California (UC), the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA), and the national institutes of Japan, China, and India with the goal to design, develop, construct, and operate a thirty-meter class telescope and observatory on Maunakea in cooperation with the University of Hawaii (TMT Project). The TMT International Observatory LLC (TIO), a non-profit organization, was established in May 2014 to carry out the construction and operation phases of the TMT Project. The Members of TIO are Caltech, UC, the National Institutes of Natural Sciences of Japan, the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Department of Science and Technology of India, and the National Research Council (Canada); the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) is a TIO Associate. Major funding has been provided by the Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation.

    About COHERENT:

    Founded in 1966, Coherent, Inc. one of the world’s leading providers of lasers and laser-based technology for scientific, commercial and industrial customers. Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market and is part of the Russell 2000 and Standard & Poor’s MidCap 400 Index. For more information about Coherent, visit the company’s website at www.coherent.com for product and financial updates.

    来源机构: 美国三十米望远镜(TMT) | 点击量:51
  • 摘要:

    The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) instrument at ESO’s Paranal Observatory in northern Chile has found its first exoplanet, a hot Jupiter orbiting an M-dwarf star [1] now named NGTS-1. The planet, NGTS-1b, is only the third gas giant to have been observed transiting an M-dwarf star, following Kepler-45b and HATS-6b. NGTS-1b is the largest and most massive of these three, with a radius of 130% and a mass of 80% those of Jupiter.

    The NGTS uses an array of twelve 20-centimetre telescopes to search for the tiny dips in the brightness of a star caused when a planet in orbit around it passes in front of it (“transits”) and blocks some of its light. Once NGTS-1b had been discovered its existence was confirmed by follow-up observations at ESO’s La Silla Observatory: photometric observations with EulerCam on the 1.2-metre Swiss Leonhard Euler Telescope; and spectroscopic investigations with the HARPS instrument on ESO’s 3.6-metre telescope.

    Small planets are relatively common around M-dwarf stars, whereas gas giants like NGTS-1b appear to be rarer around M-dwarfs than they are around stars more like the Sun. This is consistent with current theories of planet formation, but observations of more M-dwarfs are needed before a clear understanding of the numbers of giant planets around them can be arrived at. The NGTS is specifically designed to provide better data on planets around M-dwarf stars, and since they account for around 75% of stars in the Milky Way, studying them will help astronomers to understand the majority population of planets in the Galaxy.

    The future could be very exciting for this exoplanet system as it has the potential to be studied in greater detail by the suite of instruments on board the NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) which is due to be launched in 2019.

    Notes

    [1] An M-dwarf is a small, faint star with approximately 8–50% of the mass of the Sun and with a surface temperature of less than 3700°C. 50 of the closest 60 stars to our Solar System are thought to be M-dwarfs, even though not a single one is bright enough to be visible from the Earth with the naked eye.

    来源机构: 欧洲南方天文台 | 点击量:26
  • 摘要:

    Though the Webb telescope will focus on stars and galaxies approximately 13.5 billion light-years away, its sight goes through a similar process as you would if you underwent laser vision correction surgery to be able to focus on an object 10 feet across the room. In orbit at Earth’s second Lagrange point (L2), far from the help of a terrestrial doctor, Webb will use its near-infrared camera (NIRCam) instrument to help align its primary mirror segments about 40 days after launch, once they have unfolded from their unaligned stowed position and cooled to their operating temperatures.

    Laser vision correction surgery reshapes the cornea of the eye to remove imperfections that cause vision problems like nearsightedness. The cornea is the surface of the eye; it helps focus rays of light on the retina at the back of the eye, and though it appears to be uniform and smooth, it can be misshapen and pockmarked with dents, dimples, and other imperfections that can affect a person’s sight. The relative positioning of Webb’s primary mirror segments after launch will be the equivalent of these corneal imperfections, and engineers on Earth will need to make corrections to the mirrors’ positions to bring them into alignment, ensuring they will produce sharp, focused images.

    These corrections are made through a process called wavefront sensing and control, which aligns the mirrors to within tens of nanometers. During this process, a wavefront sensor (NIRCam in this case) measures any imperfections in the alignment of the mirror segments that prevent them from acting like a single, 6.5-meter (21.3-foot) mirror. An eye surgeon performing wavefront-guided laser vision correction surgery (a process that was improved by technology developed to shape Webb’s mirrors) similarly measures and three-dimensionally maps any inconsistencies in the cornea. The system feeds this data to a laser, the surgeon customizes the procedure for the individual, and the laser then reshapes and resurfaces the cornea according to that procedure.

    Engineers on Earth will not use a laser to melt and reshape Webb’s mirrors (feel free to give a sigh of relief); instead, they will use NIRCam to take images to determine how much they need to adjust each of the telescope’s 18 primary mirror segments. They can adjust the mirror segments through extremely minute movements of each segment’s seven actuators (tiny mechanical motors) — in steps of about 1/10,000th the diameter of a human hair.

    The wavefront sensing and control process is broken into two parts — coarse phasing and fine phasing.

    During coarse phasing, engineers point the telescope toward a bright star and use NIRCam to find any large offsets between the mirror segments (though “large” is relative, and in this case it means mere millimeters). NIRCam has a special filter wheel that can select, or filter, specific optical elements that are used during the coarse phasing process. While Webb looks at the bright star, grisms in the filter wheel will spread the white light of the star out on a detector. Grisms, also called grating prisms, are used to separate light of different wavelengths. To an observer, these different wavelengths appear as parallel line segments on a detector.

    “The light from each segment will interfere with adjacent segments, and if the segments are not aligned to better than a wavelength of light, that interference shows up like barber pole patterns,” explained Lee Feinberg, optical telescope element manager for the Webb telescope at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “The analysis of the barber pole patterns tell the engineers how to move the mirrors.”

    During fine phasing, engineers will again focus the telescope on a bright star. This time, they will use NIRCam to take 18 out-of-focus images of that star — one from each mirror segment. The engineers then use computer algorithms to determine the overall shape of the primary mirror from those individual images, and to determine how they must move the mirrors to align them. These algorithms were previously tested and verified on a 1/6th scale model of Webb’s optics, and the real telescope experienced this process inside the cryogenic, airless environment of Chamber A at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston. Engineers will go through multiple fine-phasing sessions until those 18 separate, out-of-focus images become a single, clear image.

    After the engineers align the primary mirror segments, they must align the secondary mirror to the primary, then align both the primary and secondary mirrors to the tertiary mirror and the science instruments. Though the engineers complete the initial alignment with NIRCam, Feinberg explained they also test the alignment with Webb’s other instruments to ensure the telescope is aligned “over the full field.”

    The entire alignment process is expected to take several months, and once Webb begins making observations, its mirrors will need to be checked every few days to ensure they are still aligned — just as someone who underwent laser vision correction surgery will schedule regular eye doctor visits to make sure their vision is not degrading.

    The James Webb Space Telescope, the scientific complement to NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, will be the premier space observatory of the next decade. Webb is an international project led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and CSA (Canadian Space Agency).

    来源机构: 詹姆斯·韦伯空间望远镜(JWST) | 点击量:29
  • 摘要:

    During Webb’s extensive cryogenic testing, engineers checked the alignment of all the telescope optics and demonstrated the individual primary mirror segments can be properly aligned to each other and to the rest of the system. This all occurred in test conditions that simulated the space environment where Webb will operate, and where it will collect data of never-before-observed portions of the universe. Verifying the optics as a system is a very important step that will ensure the telescope will work correctly in space.

    The actual test of the optics involved a piece of support equipment called the ASPA, a nested acronym that means “AOS Source Plate Assembly.” The ASPA is a piece of hardware that sits atop Webb’s Aft Optics Subsystem (AOS), which is recognizable as a black “nose cone” that protrudes from the center of Webb’s primary mirror. The AOS contains the telescope’s tertiary and fine-steering mirrors. The ASPA is ground test hardware, and it will be removed from the telescope before it is launched into space.

    During testing, the ASPA fed laser light of various infrared wavelengths into and out of the telescope, thus acting like a source of artificial stars. In the first part of the optical test, called the “half-pass” test, the ASPA fed laser light straight into the AOS, where it was directed by the tertiary and fine-steering mirrors to Webb’s science instruments, which sit in a compartment directly behind the giant primary mirror. This test let engineers make measurements of the optics inside the AOS, and how the optics interacted with the science instruments. Critically, the test verified the tertiary mirror, which is immovable, was correctly aligned to the instruments.

    In another part of the test, called the “pass-and-a-half” test, light traveled in a reverse path through the telescope optics. The light was again fed into the system from the ASPA, but upwards, to the secondary mirror. The secondary mirror then reflected the light down to the primary mirror, which sent it back up to the top of Chamber A. Mirrors at the top of the chamber sent the light back down again, where it followed its normal path through the telescope to the instruments. This verified not only the alignment of the primary mirror itself but also the alignment of the whole telescope — the primary mirror, secondary mirror, and the tertiary and fine-steering mirrors inside the AOS.

    Taken together, the half-pass and pass-and-a-half tests demonstrated all the telescope optics are properly aligned and that they can be aligned again after being deployed in space.

    The photo, snapped by Ball Aerospace optical engineer Larkin Carey after the final fiber optic connections between ASPA and the laser source outside the chamber were made, verified the line of sight for the pass-and-a-half part of the test. The image was compared with one collected once the telescope was cold inside the chamber, to ensure any observed obscurations were due to the ASPA hardware and would not be present during science data collection on orbit.

    In the photo, Carey is harnessed to a “diving board” over the primary mirror. All tools (including the camera) were tethered, and all safety protocol for working over the mirror were closely followed. Carey faced upwards and took the photo of the secondary mirror to verify the ASPA line of sight. The secondary mirror is reflecting him as well as the AOS, the ASPA, and the primary mirror below.

    “Intricate equipment is required to test an instrument as complex as the Webb telescope. The ASPA allowed us to directly test key alignments to ensure the telescope is working as we expect, but its location meant we had to have a person install over 100 fiber optic cables by hand over the primary mirror,” said Allison Barto, Webb telescope program manager at Ball Aerospace. “This challenging task, which Larkin rehearsed many times to ensure it could be performed safely, also offered the opportunity to check the alignments by taking this ‘selfie’ prior to entering the test.”

    After cryogenic testing at Johnson is complete, Webb’s combined science instruments and optics journey to Northrop Grumman in Redondo Beach, California, where they will be integrated with the spacecraft element, which is the combined sunshield and spacecraft bus. Together, the pieces form the complete James Webb Space Telescope observatory. Once fully integrated, the entire observatory will undergo more tests during what is called "observatory-level testing." This testing is the last exposure to a simulated launch environment before flight and deployment testing on the whole observatory.

    Webb is expected to launch from Kourou, French Guiana, in the spring of 2019.

    The James Webb Space Telescope, the scientific complement to NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, will be the premier space observatory of the next decade. Webb is an international project led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and CSA (Canadian Space Agency).

    来源机构: 美国航空航天局 | 点击量:50
  • 摘要:

    Representatives from the Thirty Meter Telescope’s (TMT’s) Wide-Field Optical Spectrograph (WFOS) team and TMT’s China partners gathered recently in China to discuss potential collaboration during the next stage of the conceptual design of WFOS.

    WFOS is planned to be one of TMT’s first-light instruments. It will offer extraordinary new capabilities to study the early, distant universe, including the first stars and galaxies, and the intergalactic medium.

    WFOS is now in its conceptual design phase, studying two different instrument designs: a slicer-based concept, and a fiber-based concept. The final decision will be made in March 2018. The next step will then include optimizing and prototyping the opto-mechanical design, fiber or slicer concepts, cameras, dispersive architecture, large refractive gratings, dichroics, robotics systems, and details of detector design. This will be followed by a two-year preliminary design phase, then final design, fabrication and integration and test phases, prior to fielding and commissioning on the telescope.

    Dr. Fengchuan Liu, the Deputy Project Manager of TMT, updated the current status of TMT to all attendees remotely. WFOS Instrument Project Manager Maureen Savage (UCO), Lead Engineer Matthew Radovan (UCO) and Dr. Zheng Cai (UCO) introduced the program, the technical opportunities and the science goals of WFOS, respectively.

    Representatives from several Institutes of Chinese Academy of Sciences and universities introduced their interests and their corresponding abilities, including National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) and its affiliate, Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics & Technology (NIAOT); Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO); Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics (CIOMP); Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM), University of Science and Technology of China (USTC); Shanghai Jiao Tong University (STJU); Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST); Beijing Institute of Technology (BIT).

    The TMT WFOS delegation also visited SHAO, SIOM, NIAOT, USTC and Tsinghua University, and held face-to-face discussions with each team.

    来源机构: 美国三十米望远镜(TMT) | 点击量:83
  • 摘要:

    Attendees at a workshop on Future Space-Based Ultraviolet-Optical-Infrared Telescopes have recommended that astronomers worldwide intensify their activities to explore the possibilities for science with a large UV, optical and infrared space mission.

    The workshop on Future Space-Based Ultraviolet-Optical-Infrared Telescopes, organised by the IAU Working Group on Global Coordination of Ground and Space Astrophysics, with the generous support of the Kavli Foundation, was held between 17 and 19 July 2017 in Kasteel Oud-Poelgeest near Leiden. Forty invited participants from 17 countries attended, from universities, observatories, research organisations, and space agencies, and including science community leaders and experts on various aspects of the science and technology.

    The goal of the workshop was to discuss the science goals, technical requirements, political constraints and opportunities for a future large-scale space mission. The lively and inspiring discussion is summarised in a report that recommends that astronomers worldwide intensify their activities to explore the possibilities for science with a large UV, optical and infrared space mission. The report will inform future consideration and will serve as input to the Focus Meeting #13 “Global Coordination of International Astrophysics and Heliophysics Activities from Space and Ground” which will take place at the XXX General Assembly in Vienna between 20 and 31 August 2018.

    A significant aspect of the IAU’s mission is the promotion of science through international cooperation. Global strategic planning and discussion are key elements in the process of developing long-term collaborative efforts and maximising science returns. With this in mind, the IAU Working Group on Global Coordination of Ground and Space Astrophysics is charged with considering the future of global cooperation and collaboration. The co-chairs of the Working Group are David Spergel and Roger Davies and the EC liaisons are Ewine van Dishoeck and Debra Elmegreen (the full list of members is here).

    The programme, list of participants and background documentation can be accessed via the workshop webpage.

    More information

    The IAU is the international astronomical organisation that brings together more than 10 000 professional astronomers from almost 100 countries. Its mission is to promote and safeguard the science of astronomy in all its aspects through international cooperation. The IAU also serves as the internationally recognised authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and the surface features on them. Founded in 1919, the IAU is the world's largest professional body for astronomers.

    来源机构: 国际天文学会 | 点击量:37
  • 摘要:

    Last month, the TMT Communications and Information System (CIS) passed a key test, making it ready to enter its preliminary design phase. A Conceptual Design Review (CoDR) was held at the Project Office in Pasadena to evaluate the proposed conceptual design solution and the technical trade-offs considered for TMT’s network and security needs. The details of the CIS design concept were reviewed and discussed during the full-day meeting, which was led by TMT Systems Engineering. The formal review panel included TMT stakeholders and subject matter experts from ESO and Gemini. The CIS CoDR was successfully completed.

    The TMT CIS system encompasses the TMT Observatory network infrastructure, IT systems and internet connection. In short, it implements the communications backbone between all TMT systems: telescope enclosure and telescope structure, science instruments, the adaptive optics system, various facility infrastructures, and the technical and science operations headquarters. The TMT CIS also integrates an industry standard cyber-security model into the TMT infrastructure, enabling secured production, storage, and distribution of scientific data by the TMT Observatory.

    The CIS conceptual design phase was executed by Sev1Tech Inc., which was contracted to develop the CIS conceptual design and security strategy in collaboration with the TMT Design Operations and System Engineering teams.

    For background information on CIS, see the previous post: http://www.tmt.org/news-center/tmt-communications-and-information-systems-kick-meetings.

    The main goals of the conceptual design phase were to:

    understand and clarify existing CIS requirements, including data volumes, rates, and performance required by the TMT subsystems.

    understand and capture the CIS interfaces.

    evaluate hardware and software technology strategies and options for CIS based on the CIS requirements.

    develop network architecture and security strategy.

    develop the operations model concept and high-level operations budget estimate.

    develop initial reliability and availability assessment of proposed architecture.

    develop a preliminary construction budget estimate and schedule outline for preliminary design, final design, procurement, assembly, integration and verification phases.

    The key deliverables included the CIS architecture for the data and controls network at the summit, which must meet strict performance and environmental requirements, and the security and operations strategies, which must be consistent with industry standards and best practices. Detailed technology trade studies that informed the CIS design solutions were also presented during the review.

    With the CIS conceptual design now completed, the next phase will focus on activities related to the development of the CIS preliminary design. Emphasis will be placed on supporting the final design phases of the following dependent subsystems: Telescope Utility Systems, Telescope Structure and the Adaptive Optics support facility NFIRAOS. All other TMT subsystems will continue their design activities based on the network architecture, interface definitions and data-rate performance baseline established by the CIS CoDR.

    来源机构: 美国三十米望远镜(TMT) | 点击量:21
  • 摘要:

    The State of Hawaii Board of Land and Natural Resources (BLNR) deliberated and decided to approve a Conservation District Use Permit (CDUP) that would allow construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope on Maunakea on Hawaii Island.

    The BLNR vote was 5-2 in favor of granting the permit. The decision followed nearly five months of evidentiary hearings that ran from October 2016 to March 2017, after which contested case Hearings Officer and former Judge Riki May Amano released a 305-page report recommending the State Land Board issue the CDUP.

    In its decision, the Land Board determined that the Thirty Meter Telescope “will not pollute groundwater, will not damage any historic sites, will not harm rare plants or animals, will not release toxic materials, and will not otherwise harm the environment. It will not significantly change the appearance of the summit of Mauna Kea from populated areas on Hawaii Island.

    “The TMT site and its vicinity were not used for traditional and customary native Hawaiian practices conducted elsewhere on Mauna Kea, such as depositing piko, quarrying rock for adzes, pilgrimages, collecting water from Lake Waiau, or burials. The site is not on the summit ridge, which is more visible, and, according to most evidence presented, more culturally important than the plateau 500 feet lower where TMT will be built.”

    Following the Board’s decision, TMT International Observatory Board Chair Henry Yang released the following statement:

    “On behalf of the TMT International Observatory LLC, we express our sincere appreciation to the Board of Land and Natural Resources, hearing officer Judge Riki May Amano and other officials involved in carrying out the thorough process called for in the remand decision issued by the Hawaii Supreme Court in December 2015. We thank all community members who contributed their thoughtful views during the hearing process and we are deeply grateful to our many friends and supporters for standing with us over the years.

    “We are greatly encouraged by BLNR’s decision today to grant the CDUP. Following this approval, TIO will continue to respect state procedures and to comply fully with applicable legislation and regulation. In moving forward, we will listen respectfully to the community in order to realize the shared vision of Maunakea as a world center for Hawaiian culture, education, and science.”

    来源机构: 美国三十米望远镜(TMT) | 点击量:41